Tuesday, October 27, 2020
Enteric Pathogens

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(Group Leader)



Team Members:


Typhoid is the 4th largest killer disease in Pakistan but unfortunately suitable vaccines are not available because polysaccharide antigens are poorly immunogenic. Conjugation with a carrier protein makes a good vaccine. Work is in progress on conjugate vaccine based on local isolates including Vi negative Salmonella Typhi which we have shown to be naturally existing and equally pathogenic as Vi positive prototype. It also includes S. Paratyphi A. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMP) are immunogenic and are being explored as candidates for conjugation.  Our group was the first in the world to report PCR-based diagnosis of typhoid which was followed by development of multiplex PCR for drug resistance and discrimination of typhoidal pathogens. Studies are now underway on molecular aspects of virulence and drug resistance of typhoidal pathogens and Shigella species. Our results have shown biofilm production as a significant  virulence tool of S. Typhi.


Extraintestinal E.coli are major pathogens in urinary and wound infections. Molecular profiles of drug resistance and virulence of local isolates have been established in relation to phylogenicity.  An important emerging pathogen is Shiga Toxin producing E.coli (STEC).  Use of antibacterial drugs may actually be harmful during treatment. Detailed studies have been carried on locally used drugs.  Work has also been initiated on ESBL (exteneded spectrum β-lactamases) producing pathogens which are emerging as a grave challenge for antibacterial therapy. 


Rotaviruses are responsible for 60% cases of diarrhea in infants. Molecular typing has revealed that prevalence of a combination of P and G types is more common as compared to the occurrence of P or G type individually. Work is in progress to identify novel combinations of these serotypes.


Immuno-diffussion assay to check the immunogenecity                                                          Biofilm production by S. Typhi. Water channels are

of the conjugate against LPS and DT. LPS and DT                                                                 visible. Electron micrograph. Magnification x 16200

 concentrations are 100ug/ml while anti-DT and anti-LPS

 sera are used in different dilutions.



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